बुद्धं शरणम गच्छामि ! धम्मं शरणम गच्छामि ! संघम शरणम गच्छामि !
जय भीम ! जय बुद्ध ! जय भारत !
Leberty, Equality and Fraternity !
Educate, Agitate and Organize !

Tuesday, 26 January, 2010

Dr B R Ambedkar and his life

B. R. Ambedkar   (Reference: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
Alternate name(s): Baba Saheb
Date of birth:14 April 1891
Place of birth:Mhow, Central Provinces, British India
Date of death:6 December 1956
Place of death:Delhi, India
Movement:Buddhist movement
Major organizations:Samata Sainik Dal,Independent Labour Party, Scheduled Castes Federation, Buddhist Socity Of India ,Republican Party of India,
InfluencesBuddha · Kabir · Mahatma Phule · Moses  · Jesus · Ashoka · Shivaji · George Washington  · Thomas Paine · Abraham Lincoln  · Thomas Jefferson · Edmund Burke · Martin Luther · Brooker T. Washington · Shahu Maharaj · Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III · Constitution of the United States of America · Indian Constitution  · American Revolution · French Revolution · October Revolution · Tripitaka · Dhammapada
InfluencedA H Salunkhe  · Chhagan Bhujbal · Prakash Ambedkar · Chiranjeevi · Mayawati · Surai Sasai · Buddhist movement · Annabhau Sathe · Kanshiram · Wamanrao Godbole · Sohanlal Shastri · Ram Vilas Paswan · D.K.Khaparde · Sant Gadge Baba

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Marathi: डॊ.भीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर) (14 April 1891 — 6 December 1956), also known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, political leader, Buddhist activist, philosopher, thinker, anthropologist, historian, orator, prolific writer, economist, scholar, editor, revolutionary and the revivalist of Buddhism in India. He was also the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. Born into a poor Mahar so called Untouchable family, Ambedkar spent his whole life fighting against social discrimination, the system of Chaturvarna — the Hindu categorization of human society into four varnas — and the Hindu caste system. He is also credited with having sparked the bloodless revolution with his most remarkable and innovative Buddhist movement. Ambedkar has been honoured with the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian awards.

Overcoming numerous social and financial obstacles, Ambedkar became
one of the first so called "untouchables" to obtain a college education
in India. Eventually earning law degrees and multiple doctorates for his study and research in law, economics and political science from Columbia University and the London School of Economics,
Ambedkar returned home a famous scholar and practiced law for a few
years before publishing journals advocating political rights and social
freedom for India's untouchables. He is regarded as a Bodhisattva by
Indian Buddhist Bhikkus and by millions of other Buddhists.

Early life

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was born in the British-founded town and military cantonment of Mhow in the Central Provinces (now in Madhya Pradesh).[1] He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal and Bhimabai Murbadkar.[2] His family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambavade in the Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra. They belonged to the Hindu Mahar caste, who were treated as so called untouchables
and subjected to intense socio-economic discrimination. Ambedkar's
ancestors had for long been in the employment of the army of the British East India Company, and his father Ramji Sakpal served in the Indian Army at the Mhow cantonment. He had received a degree of formal education in Marathi and English, and encouraged his children to learn and work hard at school.

Belonging to the Kabir Panth,
Ramji Sakpal encouraged his children to read the Hindu classics. He
used his position in the army to lobby for his children to study at the
government school, as they faced resistance owing to their caste.
Although able to attend school, Ambedkar and other Untouchable children
were segregated and given no attention or assistance by the teachers.
They were not allowed to sit inside the class. Even if they needed to
drink water somebody from a higher caste would have to pour that water
from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water or the
vessel that contained it. This task was usually performed for the young
Ambedkar by the school peon, and if he could not be found Ambedkar went
without water.[2] Ramji Sakpal retired in 1894 and the family moved to Satara
two years later. Shortly after their move, Ambedkar's mother died. The
children were cared for by their paternal aunt, and lived in difficult
circumstances. Only three sons — Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao — and
two daughters — Manjula and Tulasa — of the Ambedkars would go on to
survive them. Of his brothers and sisters, only Ambedkar succeeded in
passing his examinations and graduating to a higher school. His native
village name was "Ambavade" in Ratnagiri District so he changed his
name from "Sakpal" to "Ambedkar" with the recommendation and faith of
Mahadev Ambedkar, his teacher who believed in him.

Ramji Sakpal remarried in 1898, and the family moved to Mumbai (then Bombay), where Ambedkar became the first untouchable student at the Government High School near Elphinstone Road.[3]
Although excelling in his studies, Ambedkar was increasingly disturbed
by the segregation and discrimination that he faced. In 1907, he passed
his matriculation examination and entered the University of Bombay,
becoming one of the first persons of untouchable origin to enter a
college in India. This success provoked celebrations in his community,
and after a public ceremony he was presented with a biography of the Buddha by his teacher Krishnaji Arjun Keluskar also known as Dada Keluskar, a Maratha caste scholar. Ambedkar's marriage had been arranged the previous year as per Hindu custom, to Ramabai, a nine-year old girl from Dapoli.[3] In 1908, he entered Elphinstone College and obtained a scholarship of twenty five rupees a month from the Gayakwad ruler of Baroda,
Sahyaji Rao III for higher studies in the USA. By 1912, he obtained his
degree in economics and political science, and prepared to take up
employment with the Baroda state government. His wife gave birth to his
first son, Yashwant, in the same year. Ambedkar had just moved his
young family and started work, when he dashed back to Mumbai to see his
ailing father, who died on February 2, 1913.

 Fight against untouchability

As a leading Indian scholar, Ambedkar had been invited to testify before the Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India Act 1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate electorates and reservations for Dalits and other religious communities. In 1920, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of the Silent)
in Mumbai. Attaining popularity, Ambedkar used this journal to
criticize orthodox Hindu politicians and a perceived reluctance of the
Indian political community to fight caste discrimination. His speech at
a Depressed Classes Conference in Kolhapur impressed the local state ruler Shahu IV,
who shocked orthodox society by dining with Ambekdar. Ambedkar
established a successful legal practice, and also organised the Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha to promote education and socio-economic uplifting of the depressed classes.

By 1927 Dr. Ambedkar decided to launch active movements against
untouchability. He began with public movements and marches to open up
and share public drinking water resources, also he began a struggle for
the right to enter Hindu temples. He led a satyagraha in Mahad to fight for the right of the untouchable community to draw water from the main water tank of the town.

He was appointed to the Bombay Presidency Committee to work with the all-European Simon Commission
in 1925. This commission had sparked great protests across India, and
while its report was ignored by most Indians, Ambedkar himself wrote a
separate set of recommendations for future constitutional reformers.

 Poona Pact

By now Ambedkar had become one of the most prominent untouchable
political figures of the time. He had grown increasingly critical of
mainstream Indian political parties for their perceived lack of
emphasis for the elimination of the caste system. Ambedkar criticized
the Indian National Congress and its leader Mohandas Gandhi, whom he accused of reducing the untouchable community to a figure of pathos.
Ambedkar was also dissatisfied with the failures of British rule, and
advocated a political identity for untouchables separate from both the
Congress and the British. At a Depressed Classes Conference on August
8, 1930 Ambedkar outlined his political vision, insisting that the
safety of the Depressed Classes hinged on their being independent of
the Government and the Congress both:

We must shape our course ourselves and by ourselves... Political
power cannot be a panacea for the ills of the Depressed Classes. Their
salvation lies in their social elevation. They must cleanse their evil
habits. They must improve their bad ways of living.... They must be
educated.... There is a great necessity to disturb their pathetic
contentment and to instill into them that divine discontent which is
the spring of all elevation.[2]

In this speech, Ambedkar criticized the Salt Satyagraha
launched by Gandhi and the Congress. Ambedkar's criticisms and
political work had made him very unpopular with orthodox Hindus, as
well as with many Congress politicians who had earlier condemned
untouchability and worked against discrimination across India. This was
largely because these "liberal" politicians usually stopped short of
advocating full equality for untouchables.

In 1932, M. C. Rajah concluded a pact with two right-wingers in the Indian National Congress, Dr. B. S. Moonje [4][5] and Jadhav. According to this pact, Moonje offered reserved seats to scheduled castes in return for Rajah's support. This demand prompted Ambedkar to make an official demand for Separate Electorate System
on an all-India basis. Ambedkar's prominence and popular support
amongst the untouchable community had increased, and he was invited to
attend the Second Round Table Conference in London in 1931. Here he sparred verbally with Gandhi on the question of awarding separate electorates to untouchables.[2]
Gandhi fiercely opposed separate electorate for untouchables but
accepted separate electorate for all other minority groups like
muslims,sikhs...etc. Gandhi feared that separate electorates for
untouchables would divide Hindu society for future generations.

When the British agreed with Ambedkar and announced the awarding of separate electorates, Gandhi began a fast-unto-death while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of Pune
in 1932 against the separate electorate for untouchables only; Gandhi
is not against separate electorates for muslims,sikhs, and others.
Exhorting orthodox Hindu society to eliminate discrimination and
untouchability, Gandhi asked for the political and social unity of
Hindus. Gandhi's fast provoked great public support across India, and
orthodox Hindu leaders, Congress politicians and activists such as Madan Mohan Malaviya and Palwankar Baloo
organized joint meetings with Ambedkar and his supporters at Yeravada.
Fearing a communal reprisal and killings of untouchables in the event
of Gandhi's death, Ambedkar agreed under massive coercion from the
supporters of Gandhi to drop the demand for separate electorates, and
settled for a reservation of seats. This agreement, which saw Gandhi
end his fast, in the end achieved more representation for the
untouchables, while dropping the demand for separate electorates that
was promised through the British Communal Award
prior to Ambedkar's meeting with Gandhi. Ambedkar was to later
criticise this fast of Gandhi as a gimmick to deny political rights to
the untouchables and increase the coercion he had faced to give up the
demand for separate electorates.

 Political career

Ambedkar delivering a speech to a rally at Yeola, Nashik, on 13 October 1935

In 1935, Ambedkar was appointed principal of the Government Law
College, a position he held for two years. Settling in Mumbai, Ambedkar
oversaw the construction of a large house, and stocked his personal
library with more than 50,000 books.[6] His wife Ramabai died after a long illness in the same year. It had been her long-standing wish to go on a pilgrimage to Pandharpur,
but Ambedkar had refused to let her go, telling her that he would
create a new Pandharpur for her instead of Hinduism's Pandharpur which
treated them as untouchables. His own views and attitudes had hardened
against orthodox Hindus, despite a significant increase in momentum
across India for the fight against untouchability. and he began
criticizing them even as he was criticized himself by large numbers of
Hindu activists. Speaking at the Yeola Conversion Conference on October
13 near Nasik, Ambedkar announced his intention to convert to a
different religion and exhorted his followers to leave Hinduism.[6] He would repeat his message at numerous public meetings across India.

In 1936, Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, which won 15 seats in the 1937 elections to the Central Legislative Assembly. He published his book The Annihilation of Caste
in the same year, based on the thesis he had written in New York.
Attaining immense popular success, Ambedkar's work strongly criticized
Hindu religious leaders and the caste system in general. He protested
the Congress decision to call the untouchable community Harijans (Children of God), a name coined by Gandhi.[6] Ambedkar served on the Defence Advisory Committee and the Viceroy's Executive Council as minister for labour. With What Congress and Gandhi Have Done to the Untouchables, Ambedkar intensified his attacks on Gandhi and the Congress, charging them with hypocrisy.[7] In his work Who Were the Shudras?,
Ambedkar attempted to explain the formation of the Shudras i.e. the
lowest caste in hierarchy of Hindu caste system. He also emphasised how
Shudras are separate from Untouchables. Ambedkar oversaw the
transformation of his political party into the All India Scheduled Castes Federation, although it performed poorly in the elections held in 1946 for the Constituent Assembly of India. In writing a sequel to Who Were the Shudras? in 1948, Ambedkar lambasted Hinduism in the The Untouchables: A Thesis on the Origins of Untouchability:

The Hindu Civilisation.... is a diabolical contrivance to suppress
and enslave humanity. Its proper name would be infamy. What else can be
said of a civilisation which has produced a mass of people... who are
treated as an entity beyond human intercourse and whose mere touch is
enough to cause pollution?

 Pakistan or The Partition of India

Between 1941 and 1945, he published a number of books and pamphlets, including Thoughts on Pakistan, in which he criticized the Muslim League's demand for a separate Muslim state of Pakistan but considered its concession if Muslims demanded so as expedient.[8]

In the above book Ambedkar wrote a sub-chapter titled If Muslims truly and deeply desire Pakistan, their choice ought to be accepted.
He wrote that if the Muslims are bent on Pakistan, then it must be
conceded to them. He asked whether Muslims in the army could be trusted
to defend India. In the event of Muslims invading India or in the case
of a Muslim rebellion, with whom would the Indian Muslims in the army
side? He concluded that, in the interests of the safety of India,
Pakistan should be acceded to, should the Muslims demand it. According
to Ambedkar, the Hindu assumption that though Hindus and Muslims were
two nations, they could live together under one state, was but a empty
sermon, a mad project, to which no sane man would agree.[8]

 Architect of India's constitution

"Ambedkar at his desk" (an art piece) at Ambedkar Museum in Pune

Upon India's independence on August 15, 1947, the new Congress-led
government invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation's first law
minister, which he accepted. On August 29, Ambedkar was appointed
Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, charged by the
Assembly to write free India's new Constitution. Ambedkar won great
praise from his colleagues and contemporary observers for his drafting
work. In this task Ambedkar's study of sangha
practice among early Buddhists and his extensive reading in Buddhist
scriptures were to come to his aid. Sangha practice incorporated voting
by ballot, rules of debate and precedence and the use of agendas,
committees and proposals to conduct business. Sangha practice itself
was modelled on the oligarchic system of governance followed by tribal
republics of ancient India such as the Shakyas and the Lichchavis. Thus, although Ambedkar used Western models to give his Constitution shape, its spirit was Indian and, indeed, tribal.

The text prepared by Ambedkar provided constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil liberties
for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the abolition
of untouchability and the outlawing of all forms of discrimination
Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights for women, and
also won the Assembly's support for introducing a system of reservations of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, a system akin to affirmative action.
India's lawmakers hoped to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities
and lack of opportunities for India's depressed classes through this
measure, which had been originally envisioned as temporary on a need
basis. The Constitution was adopted on November 26, 1949 by the
Constituent Assembly.

Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951 following the stalling in
parliament of his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to expound
gender equality in the laws of inheritance, marriage and the economy.
Although supported by Prime Minister Nehru, the cabinet and many other
Congress leaders, it received criticism from a large number of members
of parliament. Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to
the lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, but was defeated. He was appointed to the upper house, of parliament, the Rajya Sabha in March 1952 and would remain a member until his death.

 Conversion to Buddhism

Diksha Bhumi ,Nagpur ; Stupa at the site where Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, with his followers embraced Buddhism

In the 1950s, Ambedkar turned his attention to Buddhism and travelled to Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) to attend a convention of Buddhist scholars and monks. While dedicating a new Buddhist vihara near Pune,
Ambedkar announced that he was writing a book on Buddhism, and that as
soon as it was finished, he planned to make a formal conversion to
Buddhism.[9] Ambedkar twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time in order to attend the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Rangoon. In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the Buddhist Society of India. He completed his final work, The Buddha and His Dhamma, in 1956. It was published posthumously.

After meetings with the Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa,[10] Ambedkar organised a formal public ceremony for himself and his supporters in Nagpur on October 14, 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk
in the traditional manner, Ambedkar completed his own conversion. He
then proceeded to convert an estimated 500,000 of his supporters who
were gathered around him.[9] Taking the 22 Vows, Ambedkar and his supporters explicitly condemned and rejected Hinduism and Hindu philosophy. He then traveled to Kathmandu in Nepal to attend the Fourth World Buddhist Conference. He completed his final manuscript, The Buddha or Karl Marx on December 2, 1956.

 Death / Mahaparinirvana

Bust of Dr. Ambedkar at Ambedkar Museum in Pune

Since 1948, Ambedkar had been suffering from diabetes. He was bed-ridden from June to October in 1954 owing to clinical depression and failing eyesight.[9]
He had been increasingly embittered by political issues, which took a
toll on his health. His health worsened as he furiously worked through
1955. Just three days after completing his final manuscript The Buddha and His Dhamma, it is said that Ambedkar died in his sleep on December 6, 1956 at his home in Delhi.

Since the Caste Hindus denied the cremation at Dadar crematorium, A Buddhist-style cremation was organised for him at Chowpatty beach on December 7, attended by hundreds of thousands of supporters, activists and admirers.

Ambedkar was survived by his second wife Savita Ambedkar and converted to Buddhism with him. His wife's name before marriage was Sharda Kabir. Savita Ambedkar died as a Buddhist in 2002. Ambedkar's grandson, Prakash Yaswant Ambedkar leads the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangha and has served in both houses of the Indian Parliament.

A number of unfinished typescripts and handwritten drafts were found
among Ambedkar's notes and papers and gradually made available. Among
these were Waiting for a Visa, which probably dates from 1935-36 and is an autobiographical work, and the Untouchables, or the Children of India's Ghetto, which refers to the census of 1951.[9]

A memorial for Ambedkar was established in his Delhi house at 26 Alipur Road. His birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known as Ambedkar Jayanti or Bhim Jayanti. He was posthumously awarded India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna in 1990. Many public institutions are named in his honour, such as the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University, MuzaffarpurDr.B.R.Ambedkar National Institute of Technology,Jalandhar the other being Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur,
which was otherwise known as Sonegaon Airport. A large official
portrait of Ambedkar is on display in the Indian Parliament building.
On the anniversary of his birth (14 April) and death (6 December) and
on Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din, 14th Oct at Nagpur, at least half a
million people gather to pay homage to him at his memorial in Mumbai.
Thousands of bookshops are set up, and books are sold. His message to
his followers was " Educate!!!, Agitate!!!", Organize!!!.

 Ambedkar v. Gandhi on village life

Ambedkar was a fierce critic of Mahatma Gandhi (and the Indian National Congress).
He was criticized by his contemporaries and modern scholars for this
opposition to Gandhi, who had been one of the first Indian leaders to
call for the abolition of untouchability and discrimination.

Gandhi had a more positive, arguably romanticised view of
traditional village life in India and a sentimental approach to the
untouchables, calling them Harijan (children of God) and saying he was
"of" them. Ambedkar rejected the epithet "Harijan" as condescending.
Ambedkar strongly opposed Gandhi's statement about dalit 'The harijan'.
Ambedkar criticized Gandhi that calling dalit as children of Hindu
God(Hari) indirectly implies as dalit must be under the circle of hindu
religion, not to go away from this. Then only the dalits said to be
untouchables according to the hindu varnasrama. He tended to encourage
his followers to leave their home villages, move to the cities, and get
an education.

 Criticism and legacy

Ambedkar's legacy as a socio-political reformer, had a deep effect on modern India.
In post-Independence India his socio-political thought has acquired
respect across the political spectrum. His initiatives have influenced
various spheres of life and transformed the way India today looks at
socio-economic policies, education and affirmative action
through socio-economic and legal incentives. His reputation as a
scholar led to his appointment as free India's first law minister, and
chairman of the committee responsible to draft a constitution. He
passionately believed in the freedom of the individual and criticised
equally both orthodox casteist Hindu society. His polemical
condemnation of Hinduism
and its foundation of caste system, made him controversial, although
his conversion to Buddhism sparked a revival in interest in Buddhist
philosophy in India and abroad.

Ambedkar condemned Gandhi's
support for the caste system and perpetuating untouchability.
Dr.Ambedkar warned people,"Don’t call Gandhi a saint. He is a seasoned
politician. When everything else fails, Gandhi will resort to
intrigue.” "Don’t fall under Gandhi’s spell, he’s not God... Mahatmas
have come and Mahatmas have gone but untouchables have remained

Ambedkar's political philosophy has given rise to a large number of
Dalit political parties, publications and workers' unions that remain
active across India, especially in Maharashtra. His promotion of the Dalit Buddhist movement
has rejuvenated interest in Buddhist philosophy in many parts of India.
Mass conversion ceremonies have been organized by Dalit activists in
modern times, emulating Ambedkar's Nagpur ceremony of 1956.

Some scholars, including some from the affected castes, took the
view that the British were more even-handed between castes, and that
continuance of British rule would have helped to eradicate many evil
practices. This political opinion was shared by quite a number of
social activists including Jyotirao Phule.

Some, in modern India, question the continued institution of reservations initiated by Ambedkar as outdated and anti-meritocratic.

Outside India, at the end of de 1990's, some Hungarian Romani people
drew parallels between their own situation and the situation of the
Dalits in India. Inspired by Ambedkar's approach, they started to
convert to Buddhism[11].

 Theorized Mahar bias by 'Untouchable' leaders

Narayan Rao Kajrolkar criticized Ambedkar, claiming that he was
biased by utilising government funds to help the interests of his own
caste, the Mahar, rather than dividing the funds equally among others
such as the Chambars and the Mangs.[12]
Sitaram Narayan Shivtarkar criticized him on the same account at the
Chambar conference held at Khond at the Ratnagiri District on 27
October, 1937.[12] At the "First Chambar Conference" at Ratnagiri on December 1937, chaired by S. G. Songaonkar, echoed this yet again.[12]


cursive handwriting of Dr Ambedkar (a letter to Dadasaheb Gaikwad )

Frequent violent clashes between Buddhist groups and orthodox Hindus
have occurred over the years.When in 1994 a garland of shoes was hung
around a statue of Ambedkar in Mumbai, sectarian violence and strikes
paralyzed the city for over a week. When the following year similar
disturbances occurred, a statue of Ambedkar was destroyed. In addition,
some Dalits who had converted to Buddhism have rioted against Hindus
(such as the 2006 Dalit protests in Maharashtra) and desecrated Hindu temples, often incited into doing so by anti-Hindu elements and replacing deities with pictures of Ambedkar.[13]
The radical Ambedkarite "Dalit Panthers Movement" has even gone so far
as to attempt to assassinate academics who have been critical of
Ambedkar's understanding of Buddhism.[14]


Jabbar Patel directed the English-language movie (also dubbed in Hindi and other Indian languages) Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar [15] about the life of Ambedkar, released in 2000, starring the Indian actor Mammootty as Ambedkar. Sponsored by India's National Film Development Corporation and the Ministry of Social Justice, the film was released after a long and controversial gestation period. Mammootty won the National Film Award for Best Actor for the role of Ambedkar, which he portrayed in this film.

Dr. David Blundell, professor of anthropology at UCLA and Historical Ethnographer, has established [1]
a long-term project; a series of films and events that are intended to
stimulate interest and knowledge about the social and welfare
conditions in India. Arising Light is a film on the life on Dr B. R. Ambedkar and social welfare in India.


Ambedkar Aur Gandhi,directed by Arvind Gaur.Written by Rajesh Kumar, the play tracks two prominent personalities of history — Mahatma Gandhi and Bhim Rao Ambedkar.[16]

 Movies related to Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Life


  1. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (2005). Dr. Ambedkar and Untouchability: Fighting the Indian Caste System. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-231-13602-1. 
  2. ^ a b c d Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1890s" (PHP). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/timeline/1890s.html. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  3. ^ a b Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1900s" (PHP). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/timeline/1900s.html. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  4. ^ Pritchett. "Rajah, Rao Bahadur M. C.". University of Columbia. http://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/projects/mmt/ambedkar/web/individuals/6750.html. Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  5. ^ Kothari, R. (2004). Caste in Indian Politics. Orient Blackswan. p. 46. ISBN 8125006370, ISBN 9788125006374. 
  6. ^ a b c Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1930s" (PHP). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/timeline/1930s.html. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  7. ^ a b Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1940s" (PHP). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/timeline/1940s.html. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  8. ^ a b Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (1946). "Chapter X: Social Stagnation". Pakistan or the Partition of India. Bombay: Thackers Publishers. pp. 215–219. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/ambedkar_partition/410.html. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  9. ^ a b c d Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1950s" (PHP). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/timeline/1950s.html. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  10. ^ Online edition of Sunday Observer - Features
  11. ^ http://www.hindu.com/mag/2009/11/22/stories/2009112250120300.htm
  12. ^ a b c Political Mobilization and Identity in Western India, 1934-47 By Shri Krishan
  13. ^ Shalini Ramachandran,‘Poisoned Bread’: Protest in Dalit Short Stories, Race & Class, Vol. 45, No. 4, 27-44 (2004)
  14. ^
    J. Kulkarni: Historical Truths & Untruths Exposed, Itihas Patrika
    Prakashan,1991, esp. Ch.1, "Ambedkar and His ‘Dhamma’", and Ch.2,
    "False Notions of Atrocities Committed on Harijans".
  15. ^ Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar (2000)
  16. ^ P.ANIMA (2009-07-17). "A spirited adventure". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/fr/2009/07/17/stories/2009071750610300.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-14. 

 Further reading

  • Mahar, Buddhist. Religious Conversion and Socio-Political Emancipation by Johannes Beltz, 2005, New Delhi, Manohar.
  • Reconstructing the World: B.R. Ambedkar and Buddhism in India edited by Johannes Beltz and S. JondhaleNew Delhi: OUP.
  • Dr. Ambedkar and Untouchability: Analyzing and Fighting Caste by Christophe Jaffrelot (2005) ISBN 0-231-13602-1
  • Ambedkar and Buddhism by Urgyen Sangharakshita ISBN 0-904766-28-4
  • Ambedkar: Towards an Enlightened India by Gail Omvedt ISBN 0-670-04991-3
  • Life of Babasaheb Ambedkar by C. Gautam, Published by
    Ambedkar Memorial Trust, London, Milan House, 8 Kingsland Road, London
    E2 8DA Second Edition, May 2000
  • Thus Spoke Ambedkar Vol-I* (Selected Speeches of Dr. B.R.
    Ambedkar) Compiled and edited by Bhagwan Das, published by Dalit Today
    Parkashan,18/455,Indira Nagar, Lucknow (U.P.)India-226016
  • Revival of Buddhism in India and Role of Dr. BabaSaheb B.R. Ambedkar by Bhagwan Das, published by Dalit Today Prakashan,18/455,Indira Nagar, Lucknow (U.P.)India-226016
  • Dr. Ambedkar: A Critical Study by W.N. Kuber, published by People's Publishing House, New Delhi, India.
  • Dr Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar : Anubhav Ani Athavani by Bhaskar Laxman Bholay, A Sahitya Akademi translation award winning book, 2001, Nagpur
  • Dr. Ambedkar: Life and Mission by Dhananjay Keer published by Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, India.
  • Economic Philosophy of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar by M.L. Kasare published by B.I. Publications Pvt. Ltd.,New Delhi, India.
  • The Legacy Of Dr. Ambedkar by D.C. Ahir published by B.R.Publishing Corporation, Delhi-110007,India. (ISBN 81-7018-603-X Code No. L00522)
  • Ajnat, Surendra: Ambedkar on Islam. Buddhist Publ., Jalandhar 1986.
  • Fernando, W. J. Basil: Demoralisation and Hope: Creating the
    Social Foundation for Sustaining Democracy—A comparative study of N. F.
    S. Grundtvig (1783 -1872) Denmark and B. R. Ambedkar (1881-1956) India.
    AHRC Publication., Hong Kong 2000. (ISBN 962-8314-08-4)
  • http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/ambedkar_partition/index.html Pakistan or the Partition of India

 External links & Writings

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._R._Ambedkar" as on 26/01/20019

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