बुद्धं शरणम गच्छामि ! धम्मं शरणम गच्छामि ! संघम शरणम गच्छामि !
जय भीम ! जय बुद्ध ! जय भारत !
Leberty, Equality and Fraternity !
Educate, Agitate and Organize !

Tuesday, 26 January, 2010


Bhimrao R. Ambedkar

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Arts

May 15,1915


Part I


Part III

The Land TaxThe Opium Revenue
The Salt TaxThe Customs Revenue
Miscellaneous RevenuePublic Works
The Pressure of the Revenue

Part IV

Part V 
Editorial Note in source publication
The copy of this dissertation was secured from the Columbia University by Dr. Frank F.Conlon of the Department of History, University of Washington, U.S.A. and was presented to Mr. Vasant Moon of Dr. Ambedkar Research Institute, Nagpur, in 1979.
The editors are grateful to the University of Columbia, U.S.A. for their kind permission to publish this unpublished dissertation which is in their ownership and possession. They also appreciate Dr. Conlon's gesture of generosity and the assistance of Dr. Ambedkar Research Institute, Nagpur, for making this paper available for printing to the Government ofMaharashtra.
Without going into the historical development of it, the administration of the East India Company may be conveniently described as follows:
1. The Court of Proprietors
It was " composed of the shareholders of the East India stock to a certain amount, who elect from their own body by ballot a certain number of representatives (twenty-four) to whom the proprietary confide the planning and carrying into effect whatever measures may be deemed most conducive to the interests of India and England, reserving to themselves a surveillance and limited control over the proceedings of the delegated authority."
The requirements of a seat and a vote in this Court were as follows:
A proprietor of    £ 500 stock was entitled to a seat in this Court.
A proprietor of    £ 1,000 stock was entitled to one vote.
A proprietor of    £ 3,000 stock was entitled to two votes.
A proprietor of    £ 6,000 stock was entitled to three votes.
A proprietor from £ 10,000 to £ 1,00,000 and upward stock was entitled to four votes.
Besides this, the stock must have been held for at least one year before voting. There was no voting by proxy and minors were ruled as incapable of voting.
The voters counted Lords, Commoners, women, clergy, and officers civil and military, both of the king and the company.
The sessions of the Court were quarterly—March, June, September, and December. Nine qualified proprietors were quite sufficient to ask for a special session of the Court. The speaker was ex-officio the chairman who presided at the session, brought forward all motions requiring the sanction of the Court, and laid before the members the accounts of the Company's transactions.
The Court was authorised—
(1) To elect qualified persons to constitute what is known as the Court of Directors.
(2) To declare the dividends on the capital stock of the company within certain parliamentary restrictions.
 (3) To frame, alter, or repeal such of the by-laws as hinder the good government of the East India Company, provided they do not conflict with the Acts of Parliament.
(4) To control in general any increase in a salary or pension above £ 200 a year, or over any gratuity beyond £600.
(5) To confer pecuniary reward for good service.

Dr B R Ambedkar and his life

B. R. Ambedkar   (Reference: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
Alternate name(s): Baba Saheb
Date of birth:14 April 1891
Place of birth:Mhow, Central Provinces, British India
Date of death:6 December 1956
Place of death:Delhi, India
Movement:Buddhist movement
Major organizations:Samata Sainik Dal,Independent Labour Party, Scheduled Castes Federation, Buddhist Socity Of India ,Republican Party of India,
InfluencesBuddha · Kabir · Mahatma Phule · Moses  · Jesus · Ashoka · Shivaji · George Washington  · Thomas Paine · Abraham Lincoln  · Thomas Jefferson · Edmund Burke · Martin Luther · Brooker T. Washington · Shahu Maharaj · Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III · Constitution of the United States of America · Indian Constitution  · American Revolution · French Revolution · October Revolution · Tripitaka · Dhammapada
InfluencedA H Salunkhe  · Chhagan Bhujbal · Prakash Ambedkar · Chiranjeevi · Mayawati · Surai Sasai · Buddhist movement · Annabhau Sathe · Kanshiram · Wamanrao Godbole · Sohanlal Shastri · Ram Vilas Paswan · D.K.Khaparde · Sant Gadge Baba

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Marathi: डॊ.भीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर) (14 April 1891 — 6 December 1956), also known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, political leader, Buddhist activist, philosopher, thinker, anthropologist, historian, orator, prolific writer, economist, scholar, editor, revolutionary and the revivalist of Buddhism in India. He was also the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. Born into a poor Mahar so called Untouchable family, Ambedkar spent his whole life fighting against social discrimination, the system of Chaturvarna — the Hindu categorization of human society into four varnas — and the Hindu caste system. He is also credited with having sparked the bloodless revolution with his most remarkable and innovative Buddhist movement. Ambedkar has been honoured with the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian awards.


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Wednesday, 20 January, 2010

Riddle In Hinduism



(Kale Memorial Lecture)
Address delivered on 29th January 1939 at the Annual Function
the Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics held in the Gokhale Hall, Poona
" The distance you have gone is less important than the direction in which you are going today." 

First Published: 1939 Reprinted from the first edition





Examined on: 27th January 1919
From the Report of the Reforms Committee (Franchise) Vol. II, 1919  

The Committee was constituted as under: The Rt. Hon. Lord Southborough, G.c.b., g.c.v.o., g.c.m.c.
Sir Frank G. Sly, k.c.s.l, I.C.S. Sahibzada Aftab Ahmed Khan. The Hon'ble Babu Surendranath Banerjea. The Hon'ble Mr. M. N. Hogg. W. M. Hailey, Esq., c.s.I, c.i.e., I.C.S. The Hon'ble Mr. Srinivasa Sastri (Not present on 25-1-1919
and 27-1-1919). And the following added members : L. C. Crump, Esq., l.c.s. K. Natarajan, Esq. P. C. Tallents, Esq., l.c.s. (Secretary).



" The most difficult and the most momentous question of Government (is) how to transmit the force of individual opinion and preference into public action. This is the crux of popular institutions." So says Professor A. B. Hart. But this is only half the definition of popular Government. It is therefore necessary to emphasize the other half which is equal if not more in importance. As the Government is the most important field for the exercise of individual capacities, it is in the interest of the people that no person as such should be denied the opportunity of actively participating in the process of Government. That is to say popular Government is not only Government for the people but by the people. To express the same in a different way, representation of opinions by itself is not sufficient to constitute popular Government. To cover its true meaning it requires personal representation as well. It is because the former is often found without the latter that the Franchise Committee has to see in devising the franchises and constituencies for a popular Government in India, it provides for both, i.e., representation of opinions and representation of persons. Any scheme of franchise and constituency that fails to bring this about fails to create a popular Government.

Tuesday, 19 January, 2010



"Know Truth as Truth and Untruth as Untruth "

"He that WILL NOT reason is a bigot He that CANNOT reason is a fool He that DARE NOT reason is a slave " H. drummond

Printed from the third edition of 1944


3.     Prologue

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